This is undefined behaviour. Vui lòng xem cách sử dụng mẫu bên dưới. I wrote the book The Legacy Code Programmer's Toolbox. The type of the returned object (tuple) is deduced from Types: For each type in Types, its decay equivalent is used in VTypes (except reference_wrapper types, for which the corresponding reference type is used instead). Consider the following example of a class X that contains a tuple: values_ is a tuple of references (which is a legal thing, and can be useful–they came in handy in the smart output iterators library for example). I'm happy to take your feedback, don't hesitate to drop a comment on a post, follow me or get in touch directly ! The Tuple elements can be accessed using properties with a name pattern Item, which does not make sense. So in our example, std::make_tuple creates a tuple of type std::tuple. It contains some logic to determine the types of the values inside of the tuple it makes. What, Undefined Behaviour, just for assembling a handful of values into a tuple? Python – Convert Tuple to Tuple Pair Last Updated : 08 Jun, 2020 Sometimes, while working with Python Tuple records, we can have a problem in which we need to convert Single tuple with 3 elements to pair of dual tuple. C# 7 includes ValueTuple to overcome Tuple's limitations and makes it even easier to work with Tuple. Here is the whole snippet if you’d like to play around with it. タプルまたはチュープル(英: tuple )とは、複数の構成要素からなる組を総称する一般概念。 数学や計算機科学などでは通常、順序付けられた対象の並びを表すために用いられる。 個別的には、n 個でできた組を英語で「 n-tuple 」と書き、日本語に訳す場合は通常「n 組」としている。 So if we rewrite our example by using std::tie instead of std::make_tuple: What happened is that std::tie returned a tuple of references (of type std::tuple pointing to the arguments it received (i and s). Then it created a std::tuple object internally and initialized it and A tuple is an object capable to hold a collection of elements. To understand what is going on, we need to understand what std::make_tuple does, and what we should have used instead to make this code behave like we would have expected it (hint: we should have used std::tie). std::tieは、タプル(std::tuple)のオブジェクトから要素をまとめて取り出すことができます。 std::tuple 1. make_tuple() で指定しなきゃいけないなんて知らなかったので、 値入れるのにも出力するのにも1時間くらい手間取ったのでダメ やはりC++こわい :追記(ほぼ自分のための): C++11とかのバージョンを全く考慮してないから、g++のあとに Then values_, the data member of class X, initialises all of its references (remember, it is a tuple of references) with the values inside of the unnamed, temporary tuple returned by std::make_tuple. -  Designed by Thrive Themes | Powered by WordPress, Undefined behaviour when building a tuple the wrong way, 4 Features of Boost HOF That Will Make Your Code Simpler, A Classic Compilation Error with Dependent Types, The Demultiplexer Iterator: Routing Data to Any Numbers of Outputs, Unzipping a Collection of Tuples with the unzip Smart Output Iterator. But why are there three of them? So let’s use… std::make_tuple then! It turns out that those three functions help craft different sorts of tuples, and perhaps even more importantly, if in a given situation you don’t use the right one, then you may be good for undefined behaviour. To make the above code more readable, we can name the tuple return type values. There is a third helper that takes a variadic pack of values and creates a tuple out of them: std::forward_as_tuple. std::make_tuple did following things, std::make_tuple took three arguments and automatically deduced their types as int, double and string. Tôi đã triển khai "c ++ có tên Tuple" bằng cách sử dụng bộ tiền xử lý boost. But unlike std::make_tuple, std::tie doesn’t std::decay the types of its parameters. Like std::make_tuple, std::tie takes a variadic pack of parameters and creates a tuple out of them. The ValueTuple is stored on the heap, which is easy to retrieve. 某電機メーカーで通信機開発がメインのソフトウエアエンジニアです。 プライベートでiPhone、androidアプリ開発もやっています。 音楽好き。 アジャイル、XP、テスト自動化、puredata、unity等に興味あり。 最近arduinoにはまっています。 这篇文章主要介绍了C++11新特性std::make_tuple的使用,文中通过示例代码介绍的非常详细,对大家的学习或者工作具有一定的参考学习价值,需要的朋友们下面随着小编来一起学习学习吧 In summary, when you need to build a tuple, use: Make sure you choose the right one, otherwise you program might end up with dragons, clowns and butterflies. C#7.0 introduced a new and improved version of Tuple over generic tuple and named it as ValueTuple. I'm your host on Fluent C++. The constructor of X receives a variadic pack of values, and has to create a std::tuple out of them. Note that there is an exception to the behaviour of std::make_tuple when it determines the types to store inside the tuple: if some of the decayed type is std::reference_wrapper, then the tuple will have a T& at the corresponding positions. Tuples are handy C++ components that appeared in C++11, and are a very useful help when programming with variadic templates. Constructs an object of the appropriate tuple type to contain the elements specified in args. All three reflect in their name the fact that they put values together to build a tuple. tuple就是加强版的pair,可以含有多个元素。 tuple初始定义时,就必须确定每个元素的类型。 比如定义一个三个元素的tuple: tuple tp; 将输入的值放进tuple: make_tuple函数返回一个tuple。 int x,y,z; cin>>x>>y>>z; v i is an lvalue, universe() is an rvalue, and the tuple returned by std::forward_as_tuple contains a lvalue reference and an rvalue reference. The code snippet in Listing 10 changes the method signature by giving the tuple type values names. So we could, in theory, rewrite our example with std::ref in order to create std::reference_wrappers: However, we shouldn’t use that, because there is a simpler solution: std::tie. My focus is on C++ and particularly how to write expressive code. It can’t be so complicated to build a tuple, right? Okay. To illustrate, consider the following example: This program compiles (which implies that the static_assert has its condition verified). Dereferencing those references therefore leads to undefined behaviour. Let’s now try to use our class, with an int and a std::string for example: If all goes well, this program should output 42 and universe, because those are the contents of the tuple, right? Bằng cách lấy từ Tuple, tôi nhận được so … Quite the opposite in fact: it keeps lvalue references to its parameters! To make things even simpler, C++ offers not one but three helpers to build tuples and make our variadic template code more expressive: std::make_tuple, std::tie and std::forward_as_tuple. タプルを展開して関数呼び出しするapply()関数の導入に合わせて、タプルを任意の型に変換するmake_from_tuple()関数が導入されます。 apply()関数ではオブジェクトの構築までカバーができない(コンストラクタを呼び出せない)ので、そのコーナーケースをカバーするのが目的です。 Not quite what we wanted. 2. make_tuple() :- make_tuple() is used to assign tuple with values. The code snippet in Listing 10 changes the method signature by giving the tuple type values names. 生成 tuple 对象的最简单方式是使用定义在 tuple 头文件中的辅助函数 make_tuple()。这个函数可以接受不同类型的任意个数的参数,返回的 tuple 的类型由参数的类型决定。例如: auto my_tuple = std::make_tuple (Name Check out this refresher). And std::decay removes the const and the reference attributes of a type. 特定要素を無視する The values passed should be in order with the values declared in tuple. 戻り値 Tuple 値が (item1, item2, item3, item4, item5, item6) である 6 組。A 6-tuple whose value is (item1, item2, item3, item4, item5, item6).注釈 Create は、コンポーネントの型を明示的に指定しなくても、6組のオブジェクトをインスタンス化するために呼び出すことができるヘルパーメソッドです。 Tuples are handy C++ components that appeared in C++11, and are a very useful help when programming with variadic templates. I have been a C++ developer for 9 years, working for Murex which is a major software editor in the finance industry. More specifically, std::make_tuple applies std::decay on each of the types it receives, in order to determine the corresponding type to store in the tuple. C++11 : Types...の各型Tにおいて、 1.1. std::decay::typeの結果型を使用し、 1.2. Hello, my name is Jonathan Boccara. But this unnamed, temporary tuple returned by std::make_tuple gets destroyed at the end of the initialisation list of the constructor, leaving the references inside of values_ pointing to objects that no longer exist. ンプルに扱える struct 構造体の方が便利なのかもしれません。, Tuple ではコンストラクタで値を一括設定できましたが、struct 構造体も C++11 の初期化構文で一括設定できます。, 趣味人プログラマー。プログラミングとは幼馴染です。, 最近の興味は、プログラミングの楽しさを伝えること。そのために何ができるのか模索しつつ地道に活動中です。, 好きな音楽は、断然!小松未歩さん。そして突然! Pyxis 超急上昇。, C++11 の型推論で変数定義を簡略化する, 右辺値参照とムーブコンストラクタの使い方. Each element can be of a different type. As a result, if we pass lvalue references to std::make_tuple, as we did in the above example, std::make_tuple will store the corresponding decayed types. かつ型Tがstd::reference_wrapper型であった場合T&型を使用する 2. 複数の型の値を保持する std::tie 1. In this post I show how to create a simple list of a tuples with named values using an object initialiser and the new tuple syntax from C# 7. パラメータパックの値からなるtupleオブジェクトを返す。 1. tuple型は複数個の値の組を表す tuple<値1の型, 値2の型, 値3の型, (...)> 変数名; (必要な分だけ型を書く)で宣言する make_tuple (値1, 値2, 値3, (...)) Tuple types (C# reference) 07/09/2020 8 minutes to read B p In this article Available in C# 7.0 and later, the tuples feature provides concise syntax to group multiple data elements in a lightweight data structure. C++20 : Types...の各型Tにおいて、 2.1. std::unwrap_ref_decay_tを適用した型を使用する As it appears in the previous example, std::make_tuple doesn’t just make a tuple. This class holds references to the objects that are passed to its constructor. I found it hard to find a webpage showing a simplistic way to create named value tuples in a list. To understand what it does and how it differs from std::make_tuple and std::tie, note that it has forward in its name, just like std::forward or like “forward” in “forwarding reference”. 要素をまとめて取り出す std::ignore 1. values_ therefore also references those initial parameters. To make things even simpler, C++ offers not one but three helpers to build tuples and make our variadic template code more expressive: std::make_tuple, std::tie and std::forward_as_tuple. Copyright text 2018 by Fluent C++. 与えた引数から型を判断させて自動で Tuple 型を作りたい場合は std::make_tuple 関数が使えます。 auto tupleValue = std::make_tuple(10, 15.3, &instance); このようにすることで、たとえば instance が CMyClass 型だった場合、"std::tuple" という型の Tuple が生成されます。 tie(a,b,c) = make_tuple(b*c,a*c,a*b); 解凍するのは少し厄介です。 しかし、ポイントは、タプルがよくある最も一般的な状況に対処する既知の方法があるため、タプルを取る大きな緊急性はありません。 他に何もないなら、私は確信してい The value tuple comes with .NET Framework 4.7 or .NET library Template parameters Types... A list of types used for the elements, in the same order as they are going to be ordered in the tuple. std::forward_as_tuple determines the types of the elements of the tuple like std::forward does: if it receives an lvalue then it will have an lvalue reference, and if it receives an rvalue then it will have an rvalue reference (not sure about lvalues and rvalues in C++? This sounds like it could make a tuple for us, doesn’t it? value tuples in a list.

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