The "Hugues hypothesis" argues that the name was derived by association with Hugues Capet, king of France,[3] who reigned long before the Reformation. Retaliating against the French Catholics, the Huguenots had their own militia. They were regarded as groups supporting the French Republic, which Action Française sought to overthrow. French Protestant exiles fleeing persecution following the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, they scattered around Europe, North America, the Caribbean, South Africa, and even remote islands in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. [88][89] Many became private tutors, schoolmasters, travelling tutors and owners of riding schools, where they were hired by the upper class.[90]. Around 1685, Huguenot refugees found a safe haven in the Lutheran and Reformed states in Germany and Scandinavia. The Berlin Huguenots preserved the French language in their church services for nearly a century. According to the Huguenot Society of South Africa the monument stands for the following things: The Huguenot Memorial Monument in Franschhoek was inaugurated on April 17th, 1948. Nearby villages are Hengoed, and Ystrad Mynach. [12], Among the nobles, Calvinism peaked on the eve of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. By then, most Protestants were Cevennes peasants. Winston Churchill was the most prominent Briton of Huguenot descent, deriving from the Huguenots who went to the colonies; his American grandfather was Leonard Jerome. ", https://web.archive.org/web/20140512214216/http://www.foucachon.com/Huguenots_Waldensians.pdf, "L'affaire des placards, la fin de la belle Renaissance", "18 octobre 1534: l'affaire des placards", "This Day in History 1572: Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre", "Rise of 'neo-Protestantism' under Macron challenges traditional Catholic-secular approach to politics", "Welcome to The Huguenot Society of Australia Website", "Chronology – French Church du Saint-Esprit", https://www.geni.com/projects/French-Huguenots-and-their-descendants/42678, "Allocution de M. François Mitterrand, Président de la République, aux cérémonies du tricentenaire de la Révocation de l'Edit de Nantes, sur la tolérance en matière politique et religieuse et l'histoire du protestantisme en France, Paris, Palais de l'UNESCO, vendredi 11 octobre 1985. Mary returned to Scotland a widow, in the summer of 1561. [citation needed] A group of Huguenots was part of the French colonisers who arrived in Brazil in 1555 to found France Antarctique. The British government ignored the complaints made by local craftsmen about the favouritism shown to foreigners. A French church in Portarlington dates back to 1696,[106] and was built to serve the significant new Huguenot community in the town. The city's political institutions and the university were all handed over to the Huguenots. Most of the Huguenot congregations (or individuals) in North America eventually affiliated with other Protestant denominations with more numerous members. The flight of the Huguenots to South Africa did not, as is generally believed, occur only during the years 1688 to 1689. Escalating, he instituted dragonnades, which included the occupation and looting of Huguenot homes by military troops, in an effort to forcibly convert them. Huguenot, any of the Protestants in France in the 16th and 17th centuries, many of whom suffered severe persecution for their faith. [26] During the Protestant Reformation, Lefevre, a professor at the University of Paris, published his French translation of the New Testament in 1523, followed by the whole Bible in the French language in 1530. Prior to its establishment, Huguenots used the Cabbage Garden near the cathedral. When Paul Roux, a pastor who arrived with the main group of Huguenots, died in 1724, the Dutch administration, as a special concession, permitted another French cleric to take his place "for the benefit of the elderly who spoke only French". Although the Huguenots settled along almost the entire eastern coast of North America, they showed a preference for what are now the states of Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina. Remnant communities of Camisards in the Cévennes, most Reformed members of the United Protestant Church of France, French members of the largely German Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine, and the Huguenot diaspora in England and Australia, all still retain their beliefs and Huguenot designation. A series of religious conflicts followed, known as the French Wars of Religion, fought intermittently from 1562 to 1598. Elie Prioleau from the town of Pons in France, was among the first to settle there. Although the exact number of fatalities throughout the country is not known, on 23–24 August, between 2,000[44] and 3,000[45][46][47] Protestants were killed in Paris and a further 3,000[48] to 7,000 more[49] in the French provinces. [37], In 1561, the Edict of Orléans declared an end to the persecution, and the Edict of Saint-Germain of January 1562 formally recognised the Huguenots for the first time. Gallicised into "Huguenot", often used deprecatingly, the word became, during two and a half centuries of terror and triumph, a badge of enduring honour and courage. The Portuguese executed them. History. [21][22], The first known translation of the Bible into one of France's regional languages, Arpitan or Franco-Provençal, had been prepared by the 12th-century pre-Protestant reformer Peter Waldo (Pierre de Vaux). An estimated 50,000 Protestant Walloons and Huguenots fled to England, about 10,000 of whom moved on to Ireland around the 1690s. The Huguenots are believed to have been concentrated among the population in the southern and western parts of the Kingdom of France. As a result, more than three-quarters of the Protestant population of 2 million converted, 1 million, and 500,000 fled in exodus. They founded the silk industry in England. The Huguenots of religion were influenced by John Calvin's works and established Calvinist synods. A large monument to commemorate the arrival of the Huguenots in South Africa was inaugurated on 7 April 1948 at Franschhoek, where the Huguenot Memorial Museum was erected in 1957. The Huguenot cemetery, or the "Huguenot Burial Ground", has since been recognised as a historic cemetery that is the final resting place for a wide range of the Huguenot founders, early settlers and prominent citizens dating back more than three centuries. The story starts with dreams of Eden, as beleaguered religious migrants sought suitable retreats to build perfect societi ... More. Consequently, many Huguenots considered the wealthy and Calvinist-controlled Dutch Republic, which also happened to lead the opposition to Louis XIV, as the most attractive country for exile after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. In Paris the spirit was called le moine bourré; at Orléans, le mulet odet; at Blois le loup garon; at Tours, le Roy Huguet; and so on in other places. The Portuguese threatened their Protestant prisoners with death if they did not convert to Roman Catholicism. [citation needed] The greatest concentrations of Huguenots at this time resided in the regions of Guienne, Saintonge-Aunis-Angoumois and Poitou. A number of Huguenots served as mayors in Dublin, Cork, Youghal and Waterford in the 17th and 18th centuries. French Huguenots made two attempts to establish a haven in North America. [25], Other predecessors of the Reformed church included the pro-reform and Gallican Roman Catholics, such as Jacques Lefevre (c. 1455–1536). Ancient relics and texts were destroyed; the bodies of saints exhumed and burned. ", Mark Greengrass, "Protestant exiles and their assimilation in early modern England. These included villages in and around the Massif Central, as well as the area around Dordogne, which used to be almost entirely Reformed too. Dutch. The Huguenots transformed themselves into a definitive political movement thereafter. The fort was destroyed in 1560 by the Portuguese, who captured some of the Huguenots. For over 150 years, Huguenots were allowed to hold their services in Lady Chapel in St. Patrick's Cathedral. [32], Early in his reign, Francis I (reign 1515–1547) persecuted the old, pre-Protestant movement of Waldensians in southeastern France. Some Huguenots settled in Bedfordshire, one of the main centres of the British lace industry at the time. Assimilated, the French made numerous contributions to United States economic life, especially as merchants and artisans in the late Colonial and early Federal periods. [7][8] By 1911, there was still no consensus in the United States on this interpretation. Many of these settlers were given land in an area that was later called Franschhoek (Dutch for "French Corner"), in the present-day Western Cape province of South Africa. They purchased from John Pell, Lord of Pelham Manor, a tract of land consisting of six thousand one hundred acres with the help of Jacob Leisler. Many of these farmers settled in the fertile lands around Cape Town and used slaves, some of whom were brought in from other Dutch territories, to work their farms. The persecution and the flight of the Huguenots greatly damaged the reputation of Louis XIV abroad, particularly in England. The wars gradually took on a dynastic character, developing into an extended feud between the Houses of Bourbon and Guise, both of which—in addition to holding rival religious views—staked a claim to the French throne. Huguenot exiles in the United Kingdom, the United States, South Africa, Australia, and a number of other countries still retain their identity.[16][17]. Some disagree with such double or triple non-French linguistic origins. It to settle South Africa Protestants réformés ( French Protestant Church of London was established by Charter! 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