Mackenzie also attacked other travellers and robbed them or questioned them about the revolt. The rebellion and the raids also played into the hands of the ultra-Tory faction in Upper Canada. Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. It recommended that the Canadas be united into one colony. [32] Mackenzie sought out support in rural communities but he also proclaimed that an armed rebellion would happen on December 7 and assigned Samuel Lount and Anthony Anderson as commanders. This kept the border in a state of turmoil for nearly a year. The more recent trend is to dismiss the rebellions as unnecessary. If the farmer refused to come to court in Toronto, they would automatically forfeit the case and their property subjected to a sheriff's sale. They mounted major raids at Pelee Island in Lake Erie in February, at Short Hills in June, at  Quebec. They were easily dispersed by government volunteers under the command of Sir Allan Napier MacNab. In December 1837, Upper Canadian radicals led by William Lyon Mackenzie, frustrated with political patronage and corruption, tried and failed to seize Toronto. Mackenzie disagreed and wanted to attack the government troops. Many of the grievances which underlay the Rebellion involved the provisions of the Constitutional Act of 1791, which had created Upper Canada's political framework. Louis-Joseph Papineau. [51], A few hours later Rolph sent a messenger to Mackenzie that Toronto rebels were ready for their arrival to the city and Mackenzie marched his troops towards Toronto. [22], Among the more than 150 lawsuits they launched that year, the Bank of Upper Canada, sued Sheldon, Dutcher & Co., a foundry and Toronto's largest employer with over 80 employees in late 1836, bankrupting the company. On 5 December, a motley assortment of 500 to 700 rebels bearing only hunting rifles, staves and pitchforks, marched south on Yonge Street. Rebellion of 1837-1838 aka Patriot War . Durham's famous report led to a series of reforms and changes including the union of the two Canada's, as well as responsible government. They formed several fighting units — known as “Coloured Corps” — in Chatham, In their fear and confusion, they turned and ran. The government of Upper Canada was run by wealthy landowners known as the Family Compact. [73] Other rebels were also sentenced to hang and ninety-two men were sent to Van Diemen's Land. Parliament also sent Lord Durham to become Governor-in-Chief of the British North American colonies,[70] so that Arthur reported to Durham. In fact, they brought Britain and the US to the verge of war. This rebellion was led by William Lyon Mackenzie, the first mayor of Toronto, who wanted the same things that they wanted in Lower Canada. On 8 December, a force of about 1,000 volunteers loyal to the government dispersed the remaining rebels at Montgomery’s Tavern. Moderate reformer in Upper Canada. Download books for free. The new Tory-dominated Legislature passed laws that exacerbated tensions including continuing the Legislative session after the death of the King, prohibiting members of the Legislature from serving as Executive Councillors, making it easier to sue indebted farmers, protecting the Bank of Upper Canada from bankruptcy, and giving Legislative Councillors charters for their own banks. Upper Canada Rebellion William Lyon Mackenzie was a fiery and vocal critic of the Upper Canadian system in the 1820's and 30's. [9], The government of Upper Canada feared a growing interest in American-inspired republicanism in the province because of the increase in immigration of American settlers to the province. [46] As they were approaching Montgomery's Tavern Powell mortally shot Anthony Anderson in the neck and escaped back to Toronto to report to Bond Head. In the 1860s, some of the former rebels were compensated by the Canadian government for their lost property in the rebellion aftermath. Onto the Upper Canada Rebellion, or as others call it, the Farmers’ Revolt. James Fitzgibbon. Lower Canada. The Rebellions of 1837–1838 (French: Les rébellions de 1837), were two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838. Thanks for contributing to The Canadian Encyclopedia. [41], Rolph tried to warn Mackenzie about the warrant for his arrest but could not find him so delivered the message to Lount instead. Upper & Lower Canada faced many problems which led to The Rebellion of 1837. just upriver from the falls. In November 1837, James Fitzgibbon was concerned about soldiers leaving Upper Canada going to quell the Lower Canada Rebellion and urged Bond Head to keep some troops for protection, which was refused. [34] Mackenzie printed broadsheets listing grievances and a call to arms to communities surrounding Toronto. The Compact dominated the running of the government. The Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada: Read, Colin, Stagg, Ronald J.: 9780886290269: Books - Amazon.ca The rebels dispersed in a panic after the first round of firing thinking the rebel's front row had been killed when they were simply dropping to the ground to allow those behind them to fire. Mackenzie, the fiery Scottish journalist-turned-politician, was the voice of the reform movement and Toronto’s first mayor. [47] The rebel leaders met that night to discuss who would become the rebellion's leader after the death of Anderson and Lount's refusal to lead on his own. They were the leading members of the administration: executive councillors, legislative councillors, senior officials and some members of the judiciary. All classes of people lived next to each other and socialized together, because “class” did not exist as it did in England. He persuaded his more radical followers to draft a republican constitution for Upper Canada modelled on that of the United States. There is continuing debate about who was responsible for the rebellion and the degree of popular support it enjoyed. It recommended that the Canadas be united into one colony. [20] Reformers such as Mackenzie and Samuel Lount lost their seats in the Legislature and they alleged that the election was fraudulent. The Early American Republic and the 1837–38 Canadian Rebellions. These policies favoured recent emigrants from Britain and the Church of England and its supporters over [25], Mackenzie gathered reformers on July 28 and 31, 1837 to discuss their grievances with the government. He also urged them to seize control of the government. [60], Anthony Van Egmond arrived at the tavern on December 7 and encouraged the rebel leaders to disperse, as he felt the rebellion would not be a success. The Scottish-born newspaper publisher and politician was a fierce critic of the Family Compact. Rebellion in Upper Canada. [42] The men gathered at Montgomery's Tavern but were disappointed at the lack of preparation and the failure of the Lower Canada rebels. The rebellions in both Upper and Lower Canada led directly to the appointment of Lord Durham and Marching down Yonge Street, his disorganized group of rebel soldiers was quickly dispersed, and Mackenzie fled to the United States. "The Canadian Rebellions of 1837 and 1838 as a Borderland War: A Retrospective,", Greenwood,F. [19] He appealed to the people's desire to maintain part of the British Empire and a paternalistic attitude of the Crown providing goods for the people. In 1837 revolts against Britain took place in Upper and Lower Canada. [67] The victorious Tory supporters burned homes and farms of known rebels and suspected supporters. [4], The Family Compact dominated the government of Upper Canada and the financial and religious institutions associated with it. After the War of 1812, there was growing discontent in Upper Canada with the elite clique With the help of American volunteers, the various rebel groups launched raids against Upper Canada. Enoch and his brothers comprised one of the most active Loyalist families to join the rebels. Rockford, IL – “ Enoch was elected Captain of the rebels at Malahide, Ontario during the Rebellions of 1837. The rebels’ loss of the Anne ended their [44] Mackenzie took both men prisoner but did not search them for weapons as they gave their word that they did not have any. They obtained supplies from supporters in the United States, resulting in British reprisals (see Caroline affair). [50] Instead, Mackenzie spent the day burning down the house of Bank of Upper Canada official and questioning the loyalty of his troops. Obviously, as a revolution it was an abject failure. They wanted democratic reform and an end to the rule of a privileged oligarchy. A large number of the settlers were of American origin. The union was reorganized as the Canadian Alliance Society in 1835 and adopted much of the platform of the Owenite National Union of the Working Classes in London, England, that were to be integrated into the Chartist movement in England. This contributed to economic hardship and increased unemployment throughout the province. [54], On Tuesday night MacNab arrived in Toronto with sixty men from the Hamilton area. The Act of Union was Without it, however, the Upper Canadian revolt probably would not This led to the introduction of what became known as responsible government. He was a fierce critic of the Family Compact and the government's refusal to give political rights to American settlers. With the support of Americans who wished to liberate Canada from British rule, Mackenzie took control of Navy Island in the Niagara River, In 1837 revolts against Britain took place in Upper and Lower Canada. The rebels set up a roadblock south of the tavern on Yonge Street that Moodie tried riding through. This was worsened in Upper Canada by bad wheat harvests in 1836 and farmers were unable to pay their debts. Radical Reformers in Canada East (Lower Canada, 1841–67; now Quebec) were known as Patriotes. [53] The rebels believed there were several battalions of troops firing upon them and several ran away. They suffered a series of crop failures and were subject to harsh debt-collection laws. The Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada | Colin Read, Ronald J. Stagg | download | Z-Library. Lord Gosford (1835–38). Few historians see any necessary political connection with the rebellion in Lower Canada. (Late Loyalists were American-born settlers who had migrated to Upper Canada prior to the War of 1812. This was something the British minority in Lower Canada, particularly the merchant class, had long demanded. Fraser, “’The Waste that Lies Before Me’: The Public and the Private Worlds of Robert Baldwin,”. The insurgency in Lower Canada inspired anglophone radicals in Upper Canada to take their own action against the Crown. However, the British government in London was very concerned about the rebellion, especially in light of the strong popular support for the rebels in the United States and the more serious … As a member of the Legislative Assembly, They prepared a petition to the Crown protesting the abuses, carried to London by Charles Duncombe, but the Colonial Office refused to hear him. The united Province of Canada came into being in 1841. [48], At noon on December 5, Mackenzie gathered the rebels and marched them towards Toronto. William Lyon Mackenzie led a rag-tag contingent of 800 men down Yonge Street toward Toronto. Two of Mackenzie's supporters were hanged, ninety-two were deported, and twenty-six were banished from Canada. [18], Unlike previous Lt. Governors, Bond Head actively supported Tory candidates and utilized Orange Order violence in order to ensure their election. more moderate lines. commander of all government forces organized to crush the rebellion in Upper Canada. On 8 January 1838, the Upper Canadian militia and a 50-man Coloured Corps under the command of Black community leader Josiah Henson captured the sailboat Anne. More moderate leaders, such as Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine, reshaped the reform movement. Both rebellions were motivated by frustrations with political reform. The rebellions, and their more limited counterpart in Upper Canada in 1837, led directly to the appointment of Lord Durham and the Durham Report. [50] Rolph and Robert Baldwin met the rebel troops at Gallows Hill and stated the government's proposal of full amnesty to the rebels if they dispersed immediately. Government loyalists dispersed the rebels with a few shots, ending Mackenzie's erratic attempt to overthrow the colonial government. [74] Frederick Armstrong believed the rebellion was a reaction to patronage afforded to members of the Family Compact after winning the 1836 election. Their objective was to engage a smaller force of armed government loyalists and militia. [62] Bond Head ordered the tavern to be burned down and the rebels arrested. [28] Mackenzie gathered reformers at John Doel's brewery and proposed kidnapping Bond Head, bringing him to city hall and forcing him to let the Legislature choose the members of the Executive Council. Durham was assigned to report on the grievances among the British North American colonists and find a way to appease them. [36], Bond Head did not believe the reports that stated the severity of resources and discontent gathered by the rebels. In the 1820s, settlers of American origin were also denied political rights, including the choice to swear allegiance to the Crown. He was forced After the War of 1812, there was growing discontent in Upper Canada with the elite clique of politicians and officials known as the Family Compact. Historians of past generations insisted that without the rebellions, change would have come more slowly, if at all. Upon receiving Rolph's message Lount marched a group of rebels into Toronto for December 4. While public grievances had existed for years, it was the rebellion in Lower Canada (present-day Quebec), which started the previous month, that emboldened rebels in Upper Canada to revolt. 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